Skip to main content

UN38.3 Certification of LiPo Battery

By August 31st, 2022LiPo Battery

Introduction of the UN38.3 Certification

 

UN38.3 (Code of Practice for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries), which belongs to the United Nations Manual of Tests and Criteria for the Transport of Dangerous Goods developed by the United Nations, is section 38. 3 of Part 3.

This manual is specifically developed for the safety of transporting dangerous goods. The regulation requires lithium batteries to undergo several tests before transportation, including: height simulation, high and low temperature cycles, vibration test, shock test, 55 ℃ external short circuit, impact test, overcharge test, forced discharge test, so as to ensure the safety of lithium battery transportation

Range of Products Tested

 

  1. Various lead-acid batteries (such as lead-acid batteries for car starting, fixed lead-acid batteries, etc.)
  2. Various cell phone batteries (such as lithium-ion batteries, lithium polymer batteries, etc.)
  3. Various power secondary batteries (such as power car batteries, hybrid car batteries, etc.)
  4. Various small secondary batteries (such as laptop batteries, digital camera batteries, wireless communication batteries, MP3 player batteries, CD and portable DVD batteries, etc.)

Packing Requirements

 

1, If the lithium battery is not installed in equipment (e.g. cell phones, cameras, radios, laptops, etc.), the battery and the original battery must be packaged separately in sturdy outer packaging to avoid short circuits.

2, If a lithium battery is not installed in equipment, each package contains more than 24 original batteries or 12 batteries, it must also meet the following requirements

1) Each package must be labeled to indicate the lithium batteries it contains and the special measures to be taken if the package is broken.

2) Each shipment shall contain an incidental document stating that the package contains lithium batteries and the special measures to be taken if the package is broken.

3) Each package after a drop test from a height of 1.2 m in any direction, the battery or meta-cell in the package is undamaged, the battery position is not altered, the battery and battery (or original battery and original battery) are not in contact with each other, and the battery is not leaking from the package.

4) If the lithium battery is not installed in the equipment, the gross weight of each package must not exceed 30 kg.

Restrictions

 

Shipments of lithium batteries and lithium blocks may be shipped as unrestricted items (non-hazardous goods) if all of the following conditions are met. If any of the following conditions cannot be met, the requirements for acceptance of dangerous goods UN3090 or UN3091 must be followed.

Limitations on lithium content

1, For a primary lithium metal or lithium alloy battery, the lithium content must not exceed 1g; for a primary lithium ion battery, the lithium equivalent content must not exceed 1.5g.

Note: The original battery is also known as the battery cell.

2, For lithium metal or lithium alloy batteries, the total lithium content must not exceed 2g; for lithium ion batteries, the lithium equivalent content must not exceed 8g.

Note: The above “lithium content” refers to the amount of lithium metal or lithium alloy in batteries with lithium metal in the anode. For lithium-ion batteries, the “lithium equivalent content” in grams is calculated by multiplying the rated capacity in amp hours by 0.3 ampere-hours of capacity.

For example, the rated capacity of a cell phone lithium-ion battery is 500mah (500 mAh). Then its “lithium equivalent content” is: 0.3 X 0.5 (ampere-hours) = 0.15 grams.

Compliance with UN testing requirements

Each type of battery and primary battery has been tested and certified to meet all requirements of the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria for the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Part 3, paragraph 38.3.

All requirements of Part 3, paragraph 38.3 of the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria for the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

 

Test Items

 

T.1 Height Simulation Test

  • Test Purpose
  • This test simulates air transport under low pressure conditions.
  • Test Procedure
  • The test cell and battery must be stored at a pressure equal to or less than 11.6 kPa and at an ambient temperature (20±5°C) for at least 6 hours.
  • Test Requirements
  • The cells are required to have no weight loss, no leakage, no venting, no rupture, no burning and no disintegration, and each experimental cell or battery is required to have an open circuit voltage after the test that is greater than 90% of the voltage of that cell before this test is performed. The requirements regarding these voltages do not apply to experimental cells and batteries in a fully discharged state.

 

T.2 Temperature Test

  • Test Purpose
  • The purpose of this test is to verify the integrity of the cell and battery seals, as well as the electrical connections within the cell. The principle of this test is to use rapid and extreme temperature changes.
  • Test Procedure
  • The test cell and battery are stored at a test temperature of 75±2°C for at least 6 hours and then at a test temperature of -40±2°C for at least 6 hours. The maximum time interval between the two extreme test temperatures is 30 minutes.
  • This procedure needs to be repeated 10 times, followed by storing all test cells and batteries for 24 hours at ambient temperature (20±5°C). For large cells and batteries, these cells need to be exposed to extreme test temperatures for at least 12 hours.
  • Test Requirements
  • The cells are required to have no weight loss, no leakage, no venting, no rupture, no burning and no disintegration, and each experimental cell or battery is required to have an open circuit voltage after the test that is greater than 90% of the voltage of that cell before this test is performed. The requirements regarding these voltages do not apply to experimental cells and batteries in a fully discharged state.

T.3 Vibration Test

  • Test Purpose
  • This experiment simulates the vibration that occurs during transport.
  • Test Procedure
  • The cell and battery are attached to the plane of the shaker in such a way that the cell is not deformed so that the vibration propagates properly. The vibration shall be in the form of a sine wave, oscillating between 7 and 200 Hz and returning to 7 Hz in a logarithmic sweep for 15 minutes. This vibration process should be repeated 12 times in each of the three mutually perpendicular cell set-up orientations for 3 hours. One of the directions of vibration should be perpendicular to the end surface.
  • Logarithmic sweep: start with a frequency of 7 Hz and maintain a maximum acceleration of 1gn until the frequency reaches 18 Hz. Then keep the amplitude at 0.8 mm (total offset 1.6 mm) and increase the frequency until the maximum acceleration reaches 8 gn (frequency of about 50 Hz). Maintain the maximum acceleration at 8gn until the frequency increases to 200 Hz.
  • Test Requirements
  • The cells are required to have no weight loss, no leakage, no venting, no rupture, no burning and no disintegration, and each experimental cell or battery is required to have an open circuit voltage after the test that is greater than 90% of the voltage of that cell before this test is performed. The requirements regarding these voltages do not apply to experimental cells and batteries in a fully discharged state.

 

T.4 Crush Test

  • Test Purpose
  • This test simulates the possible impact during transportation.
  • Test Procedure
  • The test cells and battery packs are secured to the test setup with rigid brackets. All mounting surfaces of each test cell are supported by the bracket. A half-sine wave with a maximum acceleration of 150gn and a pulse duration of 6 ms is applied to each test cell and battery. Each cell or battery is subjected to three shocks in the positive direction of the three mutually perpendicular cell or battery mounting orientations, and then three shocks in the opposite direction as well, for a total of 18 shocks.
  • Large cells and batteries are subjected to half-wave shocks with a maximum acceleration of 50gn and a pulse duration of 11 ms. Each test cell or battery is subjected to three shocks in the forward and reverse directions of the three overlapping cell mounting orientations, for a total of 18 shocks.
  • Test Requirements
  • The cells are required to have no weight loss, no leakage, no venting, no rupture, no burning and no disintegration, and each experimental cell or battery is required to have an open circuit voltage after the test that is greater than 90% of the voltage of that cell before this test is performed. The requirements regarding these voltages do not apply to experimental cells and batteries in a fully discharged state.

 

T.5 External Short Circuit Test

  • Test Purpose
  • This test simulates the external short circuit of the battery.
  • Test Procedure
  • Allow the temperature of the test cell or battery case to stabilize at 55±2℃ and then subject the cell or battery to a short circuit with a total external resistance of less than 0.1 ohm at 55±2℃. The cell or battery case temperature returns to 55±2℃ and continues to maintain this short-circuit condition for at least 1 hour. The cell or battery must be observed for an additional 6 hours before the end of the test.
  • Test Requirements
  • The maximum case temperature of the battery or battery pack is less than 170°C and the battery does not disintegrate, burn or rupture within six hours of the end of this test.

 

T.6 Impact Test

  • Test Purpose
  • This test simulates impact.
  • Test Procedure
  • The test cell or battery is placed on a flat surface, and a 15.8 mm diameter rod is placed in the center of the sample. A weight of 9.1 kg is then dropped onto the cell from a height of 61 ± 2.5 cm.
  • The longitudinal axis of the cylindrical or prismatic cell to which the impact is applied shall be parallel to the flat surface and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the 15.8 mm diameter curved surface located in the center of the sample. The prismatic cell should also be rotated 90 degrees with respect to the longitudinal axis so that the impact is on both the wide and narrow sides of the cell. Each cell is subjected to one impact. A separate cell is used for each impact.
  • Coin or button cells are struck with a parallel flat cell surface and a 15.8 mm diameter curved surface in the center of the cell surface.
  • Test Requirements
  • The maximum case temperature of the battery or battery pack is less than 170°C and the battery does not disintegrate, burn or rupture within six hours of the end of this test.

T.7 Overcharge Test

  • Test Purpose
  • This test evaluates the strength of a rechargeable battery pack’s ability to withstand an overcharge condition.
  • Test Procedure
  • The charging current used during the test should be twice the maximum continuous charging current recommended by the manufacturer. The minimum voltage to be tested shall be as follows
  • (a) If the manufacturer’s recommended charging voltage does not exceed 18 volts, the minimum test voltage shall be less than twice the maximum charging voltage of the current unit or 22 volts.
  • (b) If the manufacturer’s recommended charging voltage exceeds 18 volts, the minimum test voltage shall be 1.2 times the maximum charging voltage of the current set.
  • The test shall be carried out at ambient temperature. The duration of the test shall be 24 hours.
  • Test Requirements
  • A rechargeable battery pack that does not disintegrate and burn within 7 days after the test is performed.

 

T.8 Forced-Discharge Test

  • Test Purpose
  • This test measures the ability of a primary or rechargeable battery to withstand forced discharge conditions.
  • Test Procedure
  • Each battery shall be subjected to forced discharge at ambient temperature, with a 12 volt DC power supply connected in series with the battery under test to produce an initial current equal to the manufacturer’s stated maximum discharge current.
  • This discharge current can be calculated by connecting the test cell in series with a suitably sized resistive load. Each cell shall be forcibly discharged for a period of time (hours) equal to its calibrated capacity divided by the initial test current (amperes).
  • Test Requirements
  • The original or rechargeable battery must not produce disintegration and combustion for 7 days after the test.

Leave a Reply

Close Menu

About Salient

Recent Posts

Wow look at this!

This is an optional, highly
customizable off canvas area.

Product Enquiry