Lithium batteries are an important category of batteries, and it can be further divided into two types: ternary lithium batteries and polymer lithium batteries. While both types belong to the same category, they have some differences that set them apart.
When it comes to deciding which type of battery is better, it depends on what the battery will be used for. Ternary lithium batteries are known for their high energy density and stable performance, which make them a good choice for use in electric vehicles and power tools. On the other hand, polymer lithium batteries are known for being lighter and more flexible, making them a good choice for use in wearable devices and smartphones.
Despite their differences, both types of batteries have their own unique advantages and disadvantages that need to be considered when choosing which type to use. Ultimately, the decision will depend on the specific needs and requirements of the device or application that is being powered by the battery.
When it comes to categorizing based on the materials used, there are different types of polymer lithium-ion battery positive electrodes. These include lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganese oxide, ternary materials, and lithium iron phosphate materials.
On the other hand, the negative electrode is typically made of graphite, and the battery’s working principle is generally the same across the board. However, one of the most important differences between the various polymer lithium-ion battery positive electrode materials lies in the type of electrolyte used. In contrast to liquid lithium-ion batteries that use liquid electrolytes, polymer lithium-ion batteries use solid polymer electrolytes.
These solid polymer electrolytes can either be dry or gel-like, with most current batteries utilizing polymer gel electrolytes. The latter is considered more stable and safer than liquid electrolytes and can even prevent leakage of the battery’s contents. In addition, polymer gel electrolytes also have a higher resistance to thermal and mechanical stress, making them more resilient compared to their liquid counterparts.
The positive electrode material of ternary lithium battery uses nickel-cobalt-manganese lithium or nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium ternary positive electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. The ternary composite positive electrode material is made of nickel salt, cobalt salt, and manganese salt as raw materials, and the proportion of nickel, cobalt, and manganese can be adjusted according to actual needs. The safety of ternary material batteries with positive electrodes is higher than that of lithium cobalt oxide-ion batteries, but the voltage is too low.
Among them, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries, which use iron phosphate as the positive electrode material, have a long cycle life, but their disadvantages are that their energy density, temperature performance, and charge-discharge rate characteristics are significantly different, and their production costs are higher. The technology and application of lithium iron phosphate batteries have encountered a bottleneck in development. Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) batteries have low energy density, poor cycle stability and storage performance at high temperatures, so they are only used as the positive electrode material for the first generation of international power lithium batteries. Multi-element materials are increasingly being recognized and focused on by the industry due to their dual advantages of comprehensive performance and cost, and are gradually surpassing lithium iron phosphate and lithium manganese oxide as the mainstream technology route.
Performance characteristics of polymer lithium batteries: flexible design, higher specific energy than quality energy, wider electrochemical stability window, higher safety and reliability, longer cycle life, slower capacity decay rate, higher volume utilization, lower internal resistance, lighter weight, and lower self-discharge.
Performance characteristics of ternary lithium batteries: In terms of safety, it is higher than cobalt lithium batteries but lower than lithium iron phosphate batteries. Among all commercial lithium-ion batteries, its safety belongs to the medium level and still needs to be improved. In terms of energy density, it far exceeds cobalt lithium batteries, manganese lithium batteries, and lithium iron phosphate batteries. On the voltage platform, its monomer has an absolute advantage, which is 3.7V, while lithium iron phosphate is 3.2V and lithium titanate is 2.3V.
Disadvantages of polymer lithium-ion batteries: higher production cost, difficulty in purifying electrolyte system, the need for protection circuit control to prevent overcharging and discharging, which can damage the reversibility of chemical substances inside the battery, and seriously affect its lifespan.
Disadvantages of ternary lithium batteries: poor high temperature resistance, limited cycle life, poor high-power discharge, toxic elements, and temperature rise after high-power charging and discharging, which can easily cause oxygen release and combustion at high temperatures.
In summary, the comparison between LiPo batteries and lithium batteries highlights the unique characteristics and applications of each. LiPo batteries, also known as Lithium Polymer batteries, are popular in the drone industry due to their high energy density, lightweight construction, and ability to deliver high discharge rates. They offer longer flight times and enhanced maneuverability for drones. On the other hand, lithium batteries, including Lithium-ion (Li-ion) and Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries, are widely used in various consumer electronics and electric vehicles. They provide stable voltage output, longer overall lifespan, and better safety features.
LiPo batteries excel in applications that require high power output, such as drones, RC cars, and high-performance gadgets. They are known for their compact size, lightweight design, and the ability to quickly deliver high bursts of power. However, they need careful handling, proper charging techniques, and adherence to safety precautions to prevent damage or accidents.
Lithium batteries, on the other hand, are commonly used in devices that prioritize stability and longevity. They have a more controlled discharge rate, a longer cycle life, and can be safer when handled properly. Lithium batteries are suitable for applications that require consistent power delivery, such as laptops, smartphones, and electric vehicles.
When choosing between LiPo batteries and lithium batteries, it is essential to consider the specific requirements of the device or application at hand. Factors such as power needs, weight limitations, size constraints, and safety considerations should be taken into account. Understanding the strengths and limitations of each battery type will help users make informed decisions and select the most appropriate option for their specific needs.
Ultimately, both LiPo batteries and lithium batteries have their advantages and applications, and the choice depends on the specific requirements of the device or system in which they will be used. By understanding the key differences and considering the specific needs of their intended use, users can make the best decision to optimize performance, longevity, and safety.