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LiPo Battery UL2054 Certification

By September 8th, 2022LiPo Battery

What is a UL test report? What is the difference between it and UL certification?

UL certification requires testing of the product and auditing of the factory once a quarter, which is expensive and time-consuming.

A UL test report is a qualified test report issued after the product has been tested to the appropriate UL standard.

One of the basic conditions that lipo battery manufacturers must meet when manufacturing battery products is to comply with the requirements of this UL2054.

If a product can only comply with the provisions of this standard as written, it is not sufficient to determine whether the product complies with this UL2054.

UL is not responsible for the customer’s product in performing safety tests requested by the customer; UL only provides a professional judgment of the product based on certain time constraints and requirements considered in the current situation; UL is not responsible for hazards caused by the product.

If the material or design used in a battery product does not meet the technical requirements of this standard, it cannot be considered to comply with UL2054.

Many of the tests in this UL2054 must include adequate safety measures to protect people and property because of inherent hazards.

Introduction of UL2054

These requirements of UL2054 are for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. These cells consist of single-cell, two or more multi-cell series/parallel battery packs.

The goal of UL2054 is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion of lithium batteries when used in products. Final acceptance of these lithium polymer batteries is dependent on their use in a complete product that meets UL 1642 certification for such products.

These requirements of UL2054 are also intended to help reduce the risk of fire or explosion to the user when replacing lipo batteries.

These requirements of UL2054 are for the assembly of batteries for general use and do not apply to those batteries intended for use in accordance with product standards. The requirements are designed for use when connecting batteries and products at the battery end connection, e.g., UL745 for suitable electronic instruments.

These requirements of UL2054 are also intended to help reduce the risk of fire or explosion to the user when replacing lipo batteries.

UL2054 cover cells with a capacity of up to 10 AMH and the battery pack assembled from these cells.

UL2054 does not include the risk of toxic hazards caused by ingestion of lithium polymer batteries and their components or hazardous conditions for people when opening batteries.

These batteries include metallic Li, or Li ions, which also meet the requirements of UL 1642 for L batteries.

Certain features, characteristics or parts of the product, materials or the entire system and the requirements of this standard arise under various, while including fire, electric shock, and other situations that may cause harm to persons, shall have additional appropriate parts and end product requirements to evaluate to ensure that the product is within an acceptable level of safety.

 

Overview

  1. General measurement theory: If a measured value is followed by another value in brackets, the second value can only be an approximation and the first value is the required value.
  2. Terminology: “Lithium battery(s)” and “battery(s)” include both user-replaceable and technician-replaceable lithium batteries.

Composition

4.1.1 The lithium battery enclosure shall be of sufficient strength and rigidity to withstand the applied force without causing a fire. Replacement lithium batteries shall be of sufficient strength so as not to cause injury to persons.
4.1.2 The battery casing shall be sufficiently rigid so that it cannot be easily bent and the use of some mechanical tools shall reduce the mechanical force required to open the casing.

Except in the following cases
1 These requirements do not apply to electrodes less than 0.04 g in cells or batteries.
2. For large cells or batteries, repeated bending or buckling will not result in leakage at the fifth definite phenomenon, or heating temperatures greater than 60 °C (140 °F) and result in buckling, then the requirements of this document do not apply to them.

4.1.3 In the case of lithium-ion batteries with a plastic casing, the outer ring of the battery shall be so designed that it cannot be opened with simple tools such as a screwdriver. The casing shall be secured by ultrasonic welding or equivalent method. Adhesives meeting the requirements of the Polymer Materials Standard – Electrical Appraisal Adhesives, UL 746C, Disposable or tamper-resistant screws are considered equivalent methods.
4.1.4 The outer casing of lithium-ion batteries used in the Standard on Polymeric Materials – Adhesives for Evaluation of Electrical Equipment, UL 746C, shall have a minimum thickness of V-1 or less flammable components.

Exception.
Materials need not be classified as V-1 or less flammable if they meet the requirements of the Standard for Polymeric Materials – Use in the Evaluation of Electrical Equipment, UL 746C for flammability of the enclosure – 20 mm (3/4 inch) flame test.

4.2 Electrolytes
4.2.1 When the lithium polymer battery case is punctured with an abrasive wheel at 23 ± 2°C (73 ± 3.6°F) under laboratory conditions, the lithium polymer battery must not contain pressurized vapors or liquids that would cause forced discharge of the substance.

Performance of UL2054

5.1 The battery shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of Sections 9-24. Of these, the forced discharge test in section 12 is only applicable to dry cells used in multi-cell series, such as battery packs. The battery case tests, such as sections 18-21, these tests are only applicable to batteries with plastic case packaging.

5.2 For the combustion test of section 22, the battery and the lithium-ion battery shall not explode or catch fire. For the impact test of section 16, the vibration test of section 17, the 250 N stabilizing force test of section 19, the mold pressure test of section 20, the impact test of section 21 and the temperature cycling test of section 24, the specimens shall not leak or leak. For these tests, when the resulting mass loss exceeds the values in Table 5.1, Leakage and Mass Loss Criteria, unacceptable leakage is considered to have occurred at that time.

5.3 When a cell or battery does not meet the standard of use of the qualified test requirements, special care should be taken in the use of such cells or batteries.

5.4 Some end product devices require a limit on battery power. Power limit testing in accordance with Section 13 may determine whether a lithium polymer cell or battery can be used in applications where a fire hazard exists.

Samples of UL2054

6.1 Unless otherwise noted, new lithium-ion cells or batteries in a fully charged state shall be used for the tests described in Section 9-24. The test schedule and number of samples used in each analysis are given in Tables 6.1 and 6.2 for cell and battery pack testing, respectively.

6.2 All test cells shall be tested at full load unless abnormal load and forced over-discharge tests are performed.
6.3 When testing a lithium-ion battery pack in accordance with Table 6.2, the lithium-ion batteries comprising the pack shall also be tested in accordance with Table 6.1 if they have not already been tested in accordance with Table 6.1.

Important Precautions for Test of UL2054

7.1 Some lithium batteries may explode when tested in accordance with Section 9-24 and personal protection should be provided against flying splinters, sudden release of heat from the force of the explosion, and hazards associated with explosion noise. The area to be tested should be well ventilated.

7.2 All persons participating in the test should not touch the exterior surface of the battery if the temperature of the battery enclosure is determined to exceed 90C during the tests in Sections 9, 10, 11, 14 and 15

7.3 The tests described in section 22 should be conducted in a separate room or room equipped with a suitable safety barrier separating the test area from the observer.

Temperature Measurement

8.1 Thermocouple wire area <0.21 mm2, ≥0.05 mm2, and with thermal potential measurement equipment.
8.2 The measuring thermocouple shall be located near the electrical properties test of the battery sheath surface.

Short Circuit Testing

9.1 Lithium-ion batteries shall comply with Sections 9.1 through 9.6.
9.2 Each battery sample shall test positive and negative terminals with a <01Ω Cu resistance short-circuit wire, the battery shall be discharged to fire or explosion,.
or until the Shen cell is completely discharged and the case temperature decreases to ambient temperature to stop.
9.3 Tests shall be conducted at 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F) and 55 ± 2°C (131 ± 4°F). Closed cells are suitable if the ambient temperature is 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F) or 55 ± 2°C (131 ± 4°F) and before the circuit is connected.

9.4 Batteries shall be tested separately unless the manufacturer specifies that they are connected in series or parallel. In the case of series or parallel application, five additional sets of batteries shall be tested and the maximum number of batteries used for testing shall be determined by the number of series/parallel connections used.

9.5 If a battery is equipped with a thermal or overcurrent protection device and is UL listed, the battery shall be tested at full load with the protection device uncovered and the uncertified protection device shall be shorted.

9.6 Li-ion batteries do not catch fire, do not explode, and the temperature of the case or battery pack does not exceed 150 ℃.

9.7 The lithium-ion battery pack must meet the requirements of 9.8-9.12.

The following exceptions.
Lithium-ion battery packs consisting of individual cells, if the cells have been tested in accordance with 9.1 to 9.6, need not be subjected to tests according to 9.8 to 9.12.

9.8 Each fully charged test lithium-ion battery pack is shorted in turn by connecting the positive and negative terminals of the battery to a load circuit with a resistive load of 80 ± 20 m ohm. The temperature of the lithium-ion battery pack is recorded during the test. The lithium-ion battery pack shall be discharged until a fire or explosion occurs or until it is fully discharged and the battery case temperature returns to within ±10°C (±18°F) of ambient temperature.

9.9 Tests shall be performed at 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F) and 55 ± 5°C (131 ± 4°F). The lithium-ion battery shall reach steady state at 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F) or 55 ± 5°C (131 ± 4°F), as appropriate, before connecting the terminals.

9.10 The design of the lithium-ion battery pack shall withstand a single failure of any protective device in the battery charging circuit under test. If the protective material fails during the test, the lithium-ion battery pack shall be connected to a maximum load condition which does not cause the protective device to open and the test shall be repeated.

The following exceptions apply: devices whose reliability has been determined in accordance with UL 1434 for thermistor-type devices, Part 1: General Standard Requirements for Automatic Electrical Controllers for Domestic and Similar Uses, UL 60730-1A, or other protection tests for devices with a positive temperature coefficient, may remain in circuit without failure. See Appendix A for other component standards.

9.11 One of the five lithium-ion battery samples above tested at 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F) shall be evaluated under the following additional conditions. The terminals shall be short-circuited with a minimum length of 16 AWG (1.3 mm2 ) uninsulated copper wire. Tests shall be made on a cork surface covered with thin paper, with the battery sample and bare wires covered with one layer of thick cotton cloth.

9.12 For all samples tested, the lithium-ion battery shall not explode or ignite. Tests shall not result in chemical leakage due to cracking, rupture, or rupture of the battery case. For lithium chemicals, the temperature of the internal battery case shall not exceed 150°C (302°F). For battery samples tested in accordance with paragraph 9.11, thick cotton cloth and thin paper shall not ignite.

Abnormal Charging Test of UL2054

10.1 The original battery cell or battery pack must meet the requirements of 10.2-10.5.
10.2 Conduct the test by discharging the battery to the capacity specified by the manufacturer. The required ambient temperature is 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F).
10.3 Subject each battery sample to a charging current three times the normal charging current specified by the manufacturer by connecting the battery to a direct current source. The special charging current is achieved by connecting a resistor of a special size and specification in series. The test time is calculated by the following formula:

Tc=3Ic

C-capacity of the lithium/lithium-ion battery in ampere hours;
Tc-charging time (h);
Ic-maximum charge current specified by the manufacturer (A);
The minimum test time should be 7 hours.
Exception: Depending on the battery manufacturer’s preference, a higher than specified test current of three times the rated Ic may be applied to accelerate the test time, with a minimum charge time of 7 hours.

10.4 If the battery is certified as an overcurrent or thermal protection device, the battery shall be tested under maximum load conditions without the protection device operating. Non-certified protection devices shall be tested after a short circuit.
10.5 The sample shall not ignite or explode.
10.6 Secondary lithium-ion batteries shall meet the requirements of 10.7 to 10.9.
10.7 Li-ion batteries shall be tested at an ambient temperature of 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F). Each lithium-ion cell shall be discharged at a constant current of 0.2 C per hour to the end-of-discharge voltage specified by the manufacturer.

10.8 Lithium-ion batteries must be charged at a constant maximum charger output voltage and a current limit of three times the maximum Ic current as specified by the battery manufacturer. The charge duration is the time required to reach the end of charge condition as specified by the manufacturer plus an additional seven hours.

10.9 Lithium-ion batteries should be tested without the aid of protective devices unless such protective mechanisms are integral to the battery design or have been designed for the purpose. Allow the resettable protection devices that are activated during the test to reset and restart the test and cycle as many times as necessary to complete the test. If the protection device trips during the test (whether it resets or not), repeat the test with the same charging time, but with the lithium-ion battery connected to the maximum load that will not trip the protection device. The safety device, which is not part of the battery and has not been investigated for this purpose, must be short-circuited.

10.10 Secondary lithium-ion batteries shall meet the requirements of 10.11-10.13.

10.11. Li-ion batteries shall be tested at an ambient temperature of 20±5°C (68±9°F). A thermocouple shall be connected to each test specimen. Each lithium-ion cell shall be discharged at a constant current of 0.2C per hour to the end-discharge voltage specified by the manufacturer.

10.12 Li-ion batteries shall not explode or catch fire. In the case of lithium-ion battery samples, testing shall not result in chemical leakage due to rupture, cracking or rupture of the internal battery casing.

Abuse of Charging Test

11.1 The lithium battery for this test shall be at an ambient temperature of 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F).

11.2 The cells of the test specimen shall be charged with 10*C5 DC, with each cell or load cell connected to a thermocouple assembly and then charged until the cell or load cell bursts, leaks, or the case surface temperature returns to ambient temperature or reaches a steady state.

11.3 During the test, lithium-ion batteries equipped with safety devices shall be used in any fault condition independent of a single part failure which may occur in the charging circuit and cause the lithium-ion batteries to overcharge.

11.4 The sample shall not catch fire or explode.

Forced Discharged Test of UL2054

12.1 This test is applicable to combined multi-cell devices such as battery packs. Lithium-ion batteries shall be tested at an ambient temperature of 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F).

12.2 A fully discharged cell shall be forcibly discharged in series with a fully charged cell of the same type. Number of new cells connected in series = maximum number of cells connected in series – 1. 5 cells shall be tested after full discharge at ambient temperature.

12.3 In the case of a configuration of several cells connected in series, the fully charged cells shall be connected in series with fully charged cells also connected in parallel for forced discharge. The number of fully charged cells connected in series and the number of discharged cells connected in parallel is equal to the total number of cells in the battery pack minus the number of discharged cells connected in parallel.

12.4 Each package of five cells shall apply if it is equal to that described in 12.2 or 12.3.

12.5 Provided that fully discharged cells (or strips of cells) are connected in series with the specified number of fully charged cells, thereby short-circuiting the battery.

12.6 The positive and negative sample terminals are connected with copper wire in a circuit with a maximum resistance of 01Ω, and the cell is discharged until it explodes or reaches a fully discharged state with a voltage of less than 0.2 V (closed circuit) and the battery case temperature returns to ambient temperature ±10°C (±18°F).

12.7 Tests in which a battery with a protective device which resists single cell failure passes any obstruction which may occur in the discharge circuit and cause excessive battery discharge.

The following exceptions: Devices with a positive temperature coefficient must meet the tests specified in the standards for thermistor-type devices, UL1434 and IEC60730-1 remain applicable in the absence of failure.

12.8 The test specimen shall not explode or catch fire.

Limited Power Test of UL2054

13.1 Lithium-ion batteries shall be tested at an ambient temperature of 20 ± 5°C (68 ± 9°F).
13.2 Lithium-ion batteries with power limitation must meet one of the following conditions
(a) the capacity of the battery is limited in nature, refer to Table 13.1.
(b) A power limiting device in accordance with Figure 13.1. If a positive temperature coefficient device is used, it shall pass the appropriate IEC60730-1 Annex J test.

d) under normal operating conditions, regulated output of mains limiting according to table 13.1 and after any single fault (open or short-circuit) under regulated mains; or

e) under normal operating conditions, a regulated mains limiting output in accordance with Table 13.1 and limiting the output with an overcurrent protection device in accordance with Table 13.2.

13.3 If an overcurrent protection device is used, it must be a fuse or an electromechanical, unregulated, self-resetting, electromechanical device.

13.4 Measure the UDC and IDC under fully charged conditions according to Figures 13.1 and 13.2 for batteries.

13.5 The load forces indicated in items 2 and 3) of figures 13.1 and 13.2 shall include IBc and S as indicated in figures 13.1 and 13.2 for load values with adjustable load forces so that the maximum current is transmitted separately from the supply. Single fault occurring in a regulated network
In these severe conditions, the fault applies to all 4 conditions.

13.6 Li-ion batteries meeting limited power requirements may be labeled “Limited Power Supply” “LPS” to indicate that they are considered a limited power source. Lithium-ion batteries which do not meet these requirements, regardless of terminal design, shall not be labeled to indicate that they are a limited power source and shall be used in applications which do not require limited power.

13.4 Measure UDC and IDC under full load conditions as shown in Figures 13.1 and 13.2 for batteries.

c) Output limitation with overcurrent protection device according to Table 13.2.

Crush Test of UL2054

14.1 Lithium-ion batteries shall be tested at an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

14.2 A 32 mm diameter hydraulic piston is used to apply a compressive force between two flat cell surfaces. Compression is continued until a pressure of 17.2 MPa is reached, applying a pressure of 13 KN and relaxing the pressure when the maximum pressure is reached.

14.3 The cylindrical or square cell is compressed so that the plane of the hydraulic unit is parallel to its longitudinal axis. The square cell shall also be rotated 90°C in the direction of the long axis, this is necessary to ensure that the wide and narrow sides can withstand compression. Each cell of the specimen is subjected to compression in only one direction and separate cells are used for each test.

14.4 Coin or button batteries shall be compressed in the in-plane direction.

14.5 Batteris shall not ignite or explode.

Impact Test of UL2054

15.1 The test is carried out with the sample cell on a flat surface, then a 15.8 mm diameter rod is placed in the center of the sample and a 9.1 kg weight is dropped on the sample from a height of 610 mm.

15.2 The cylindrical or square cell is struck so that its long axis is parallel to the plane and perpendicular to the curved surface of the 15.8 diameter rod placed in the center of the sample. The square cell shall be rotated 90 degrees in the direction of the long axis so that both the wide and narrow sides are impacted. Each cell of the specimen is only impacted in one direction. Separate specimens are used for each test.

15.3 The plane of the button cell shall be parallel to the plane at the center of which is the curved surface of the 15.8 mm rod.

15.4 The battery shall not catch fire and not explode.

Shock Test of UL2054

16.1 The cells are placed in a fixed fixture and each facet must be fixed. Each cell shall be subjected to three accelerations of equal magnitude and each cell shall be accelerated along three mutually perpendicular directions, unless the cell shape has only two directions, then each direction of vibration acceleration shall be perpendicular to the cell surface. The minimum average acceleration should be 75g (g stands for gravity acceleration) during the first 3 s. The acceleration at the moment of peak should be 125-175 g. The test shall be carried out at a temperature of 20±5℃.

16.2 The sample shall not ignite or explode and there shall be no leakage of the sample.

16.3 The sample shall be inspected 6 hours after testing and shall not show venting or leakage as described in 5.2.

Vibration Test of UL2054

17.1 Lithium-ion batteries shall be tested at an ambient temperature of 20 ±5°C (68 ±9°F).

17.2 The cell is subjected to a simple amplitude of 0.8mm tuned vibration.

17.3 The vibration frequency varies at a rate of 1Hz/mim in the range of 10-55Hz and recovers back within 90-100mim. The cell vibrates along three mutually perpendicular directions, and for cells with only two axes, the cell should be tested along a direction perpendicular to each axis.

17.4 The sample must not catch fire, explode, or leak.

17.5 Samples shall be inspected 6 hours after testing and shall not show venting or leakage as described in 5.2.

Vibration Test of UL2054

18.1 The battery is tested at an ambient temperature of 20±5°C (68±9°F).

18.2 The plastic battery case is tested as described in sections 19, 20 and 21.

250 N Force of Steady Test of UL2054

19.1 The battery is tested at an ambient temperature of 20±5°C (68±9°F).

19.2 The outer protective case of the battery is subjected to a continuous pressure of 250±5N (56±2 pounds) for 5 seconds by testing successively at the top, bottom and sides of the battery case using a suitable 30 mm diameter test instrument accessible to the circular plane.

19.3 The sample shall not explode or catch fire. In addition, the battery case shall be split so that the cell or any protective device will not explode.

19.4 The sample shall be inspected within 6 hours of the test and no leaks or spills shall be detected as described in paragraph 5.2.

Mold Stress Relief Test of UL2054

20.1 Each of the three lithium-ion cells shall be placed in a fully ventilated recirculating air furnace maintained at a uniform temperature of 70°C (1 58°F). The sample must remain in the oven for 7 hours.

Exception: If the maximum temperature T recorded on the thermoplastic battery pack housing components obtained during the normal temperature test in accordance with Section 13A exceeds 60°C (140°F), the oven temperature shall be maintained at T + 10°C (50°F).

20.2.1 To avoid hazards caused by overheating of a live cell, the specimen shall be fully discharged before conditioning.

20.3 After careful removal from the oven and return to ambient temperature in accordance with the conditions described in 20.3, the sample shall show no signs of mechanical damage that could damage the battery or protective circuitry. In addition, the cell body must not be cracked, deformed or melted to such an extent that the cell or any protective device is exposed. Openings in the shell as a result of conditioning must meet the criteria of 4.1.5.

Severe Shock Test of UL2054

21.1 Batteries shall be tested at an ambient temperature of 20±5°C (68±9°F).

21.2 Every third battery shall be dropped from a height of 1 m so that it strikes a specified surface as described in 21.3, an operation which is likely to produce unfavorable results. Each sample shall be lowered three times.

21.3 The sample shall not explode or catch fire.

21.4 The sample shall be inspected within 6 hours of the test and shall have no leaks or spills as described in paragraph 52.

21.5 The battery case shall be cracked to the extent that it does not cause the cell or any protective device to explode.

Fire Test of UL2054

22.1 For the tests described in 22.2 through 22.5, no part of the exploded lithium ion cell or lithium ion battery shall form a hole in the wire cage or penetrate the wire cage such that some or all of the cell or battery protrudes through the wire cage.

22.2 Each test cell or battery shall be placed on a screen covering a 102 mm (4 in) diameter hole in the center of the platform table. The screen shall be made of steel mesh with 20 holes per inch (25.4 mm) and a wire diameter of 0.43 mm (0.017 inch).

22.3 The screen shall be mounted 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) above the burner. The fuel and air flow rate shall be adjusted to provide a bright blue flame causing the reference screen to glow bright red.

22.4 An eight-sided covered wire cage, 610 mm (2 ft) wide and 305 mm (1 ft) high, made of wire mesh shall be placed over the test specimen. See Figure 22.1. The mesh shall be made of 0.010 inch (0.25 mm) diameter aluminum wire with 16-18 wires per inch (25.4 mm) in each direction.

22.5 The sample is heated and remains on the screen until it explodes, or until the cell or battery ignites and burns. The sample does not need to be secured in place unless there is a danger of it falling off the screen before the test is completed. If necessary, the sample should be secured to the screen with a single rope tied around the sample.

Precautions for safe handling

Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practices. Avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing. Wear personal protective equipment.

Wash thoroughly after work. Use this material with adequate ventilation.

Product is not explosive.

Heating Test of UL2054

23.1 The sample shall not explode or ignite after the test described in 23.2-23.4.

23.2 The initial chamber temperature is 20±5°C (68±9°F) and is heated in a gravity convection or gravity recirculation oven.

23.3 The oven temperature is raised to 130±2°C (266±36F) at a rate of 5±2°C (9±36) per minute and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes.

23.4 Wait for the samples to return to an ambient temperature of 20±5°C before examining.

Temperature Cycling Test of UL2054

24.1 The battery has been placed in the laboratory and cycled as follows

(a) Raise the laboratory temperature to 70±3°C (158±5°F) for 30 minutes and maintain it for 4 hours.
(b) Decrease the laboratory temperature to 20±3°C (68±5°F) for 30 minutes and maintain it for 2 hours.
(c) Decrease the laboratory temperature to 40±3°C (-40±5°F) in 30 minutes and maintain this temperature for 4 hours.
(d) Raise the laboratory temperature to 20±3°C (68±5°F) for 30 minutes.
(e) Repeat the test in this order nine times.
(f) After the tenth cycle, store the battery for a minimum of 24 hours before testing.

24.2 The sample does not explode or catch fire. In addition, the sample does not leak or leak as described in paragraph 52.

MARK

26.1 The battery shall bear the manufacturer’s name, trade name or trademark and style configuration.

26.2 If the manufacturer manufactures batteries in more than one plant, each battery shall be clearly identified as
which the plant produces.

26.3 The packaging box of the battery, including the smallest cell, which is fitted with each battery shall bear the following or equivalent markings:
Reminder text, e.g., 2Warning, 2Warning, 2 or 2Hazard.2
Batteries are at risk of fire, explosion and combustion.
Do not recharge, disassemble, crush, heat or incinerate.

26.4 shall contain the manufacturer’s detailed charging instructions.

26.5 Cells or batteries less than 1.25 inches (32 mm) in diameter and less than 0.15 inches (38 mm) thick must be labeled with the following or equivalent statement “Do not put in mouth; if swallowed, contact a physician or local poison testing center immediately.”

26.6 Batteries meeting limited energy requirements. See Section 13.4, must be labeled “LPS”.

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